Environmental impacts of 250 ml monolayer and PET/PEF multilayer bottles vs. their fossil counterparts (PNG)


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This figure shows the climate change and resource use impact of PEF bottles versus PET bottles. nova-Institute’s peer-reviewed LCA evaluated 16 different impact categories covering all relevant life cycle stages from cradle-to-grave. The comparative analysis showed that PEF bottles would result in significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (-33%) compared to reference PET bottles. PEF would also lead to 45 % lower finite resource consumption of fossil fuels and reduce the pressure on abiotic resources (minerals and metals) by 47% due to the mechanical properties of PEF enabling light-weighting.

However, PET bottles would outperform PEF-bottles in other impact categories mostly arising from the current feedstock supply. Overall, this represents a benefit because climate change and resource use are among the most relevant environmental impact categories in the current political agenda as they are driving the transition from fossil to renewable carbon. Included in the nova-Institute’s LCA were next to 100% PEF bottles also 250 ml PET/PEF multilayer bottles with 10% of PEF compared to reference PET/PA bottles with a typical 7% of PA. The analysis of the multilayer bottles showed that significant reductions of around 37% in GHG emissions could be achieved by replacing the PA layer with PEF, mainly attributed to the recyclability of the PET/PEF system over the non-recyclability of the PA containing system. This replacement would also contribute to a significant reduction of finite resources demand (36% and 52% for fossils and minerals and metals respectively).

nova-Institut GmbH
Date of publication
Aug 2022
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